James Clerk Maxwell wrote a series of equations that defined classical electromagnetism, establishing the properties of electricity and magnetism and that light was an electromagnetic wave. The individual equations bear the names of others, all familiar as electrical terms and laws nowadays – Gauss, Faraday, Ampere, Hertz, Ohm, and Lorentz. Maxwell did not actually originate the equations but rather derived them independently. They came to be know as a group as Maxwell’s.
The interesting part though is they’re not Maxwell’s at all. Maxwell made the overlapping discoveries based on a molecular model of a vortex of aether. (remember this is before all the nonsense of molecules being made up of little balls) The actual familiar equations were developed, or rather ‘simplified’, by a fellow named Oliver Heaviside, after Maxwell’s death. Evidently, Heaviside considered Maxwell’s “quaternions” (referring to 4D space) a mystical abomination, so he removed the aspects for calculating the potentials of empty space. This removed the scalar aspect of the quaternions, eliminating the hyperspatial characteristics. Also ideas like aether. (ether, the 5th element) While the equations simplified calculations, this in effect set the study back 100 years.
The essential idea is that electromagnetism and gravity were the result of the intruding geometry of 4D space in 3D “crumpled” geometry. Buckminster Fuller also made a lot of references to 4D in his all-space-filling geometry.
From my perspective, ideas of multi-dimensional space such as 4D and 11D models are applying physical principles to non-physical things like fields. This is misleading and tends to take one down rabbit holes. For example, subtle space is not ‘other’ but is rather concurrent. We see forces in 3D space. A better understanding is to think in terms of different resolutions. Different sets of laws function at different resolutions, impinging on other resolutions and thus creating effects.
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